Vehicle emissions refer to harmful gases such as CO (carbon monoxide), HC+NOx (hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides), PM (particulates, soot) and so on, which are discharged from exhaust gases.
With the increasingly serious pollution of automobile exhaust, the legislation of automobile exhaust emission is imperative. As early as the 1960s and 1970s, countries around the world have established corresponding laws and regulations on automobile exhaust emission. Through strict laws and regulations, the progress of automobile emission control technology has been promoted, and with the continuous improvement of automobile emission control technology, it has made the automobile exhaust emission control technology more effective. Higher standards are possible.
Vehicle emissions refer to harmful gases such as CO (carbon monoxide), HC+NOx (hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides), PM (particulates, soot) and so on, which are discharged from exhaust gases. They are all harmful gases produced by the engine in the process of combustion work. The causes of these harmful gases are different. CO is the intermediate product of incomplete oxidation of fuel. When oxygen is insufficient, CO will be produced. High concentration of mixture and uneven mixture will increase CO in exhaust gas. HC is a non-combustible substance in fuel. Because of the uneven mixture and the cold wall of combustion chamber, some of the fuel will be discharged before it can be burned in the future. NOx is a substance produced during the combustion of fuel (gasoline). PM is also a substance produced by hypoxia during fuel combustion, of which diesel engine is the most obvious. Because diesel engine adopts compression ignition mode, it is easier to produce a large amount of visible soot when diesel oil cracks at high temperature and pressure.
In order to suppress the production of these harmful gases, automobile manufacturers are urged to improve their products to reduce the source of these harmful gases. Both Europe and the United States have established relevant emission standards for automobiles.
European standards are implemented by the emission regulations of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the emission directives of the European Community (EEC), which is the European Union (EU). Emission regulations are voluntarily approved by ECE participating countries, and emission instructions are enforced by EEC or EU participating countries. The European Regulations (Directives) Standards for Automobile Emissions were implemented in several stages before 1992. Since 1992, Europe has implemented Euro-I (Euro-I Certification Emission Limits), Euro-II (Euro-II Certification and Production Consistency Emission Limits) since 1996, and Euro-III (Euro-III Certification and Production) since 2000. Euro IV (Euro IV Certification and Production Consistent Emission Limits) has been implemented since 2005.
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